The State of Goa is a tiny emerald land on the west coast of the Indian Peninsula . The rich and varied mineral resources of the State have contributed handsomely towards the development and industrialization of the State. The landscape is mostly hilly forming part of the western ghats. The altitude varies from sea level to a maximum of 1700 metres above mean sea level. The territory is gifted with warm tropical climate and annual rainfall of 350 to 450 cms. during the monsoon seasons -June to October.
The main rivers Mandovi and Zuari both flowing into the Arabian sea are navigable by barges used for transporting the ore.
The State of Goa is endowed with Mineral Resources. Iron ore, Manganese ore, Bauxite are minerals of economic importance. Besides there are minor minerals like Basalt, Laterite stones and rubbles, River sand, Murrum etc., which are in great demand as construction material. This industry is labour intensive and provides work to large number of people.
Mining in Goa today is synonymous with iron ore mining. Exploration for Iron ore started at the beginning of the 20th Centaury. Present day mining resumed in 1947 which marks the beginning of modern day mining and export of iron ore. The exports have steadily increased from 4,36,400 tonnes of iron ore in 1951 to 35 million tones in 2008-09. The Goan iron ore is exported to China, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea and Eastern European Countries.
Iron ore mining in Goa is completely in the private sector. The Iron ore deposits are distributed over the Northern, Southern and Central Blocks of Goa. The Northern Block deposits are richer both in terms of quality and quantity of the ore, as compared to the Southern and Central Blocks.
Infrastructure wise Goa has an advantage over other exporting regions in the countries in view of its being endowed with a deep sea port and waterways that crisscross the territory facilitating barge transport. The two rivers Mandovi and Zuari have proved to be a boon to the working industry as they provide cheap river transport. These two rivers and the Mormugao Harbour are nature’s gift and are natural resources of Goa.
The Bauxite Mines are situated in South Goa over an area of 1263.678 HA. with estimated reserves of 70 million tons. These are metallurgical grade bauxite which can also be used for various applications such as cement, alumina chemicals, etc. The mines are situated also in the close proximity of two major ports, viz. Marmugoa Port and Betul Port.
It has the following Minor Minerals reserves Basalt,Laterite, River sand, Laterite-Rubble, Laterite-boulders, Pebble, Murrum and Lime Shell. The Major Minerals reserves are Bauxite, Iron ore, Manganese ore etc.